Social Studies Notes:

Indian Subcontinent

subcontinent- a large landmass that is smaller than a continent

Mount Everest- world’s highest mountain, located between Nepal and China

Ganges River- India’s most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh

delta- a landform at the mouth of a river created by sediment deposits

Indus River- river in Pakistan that creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley

monsoons- seasonal winds that bring either moist or dry air to an area

Delhi- site of former Muslim kingdom in northern India

colony- territory inhabited and controlled by people from a foreign land

partition- division

Hinduism- one of the world’s oldest religions, the dominant religion of India

Buddhism- religion based on the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha

caste system- divides Indian society into groups based on birth or occupation

Mumbai (Bombay)- one of India’s largest cities

Kolkata (Calcutta)- one of India’s largest cities

urbanization- increase in the percentage of people who live in cities

green revolution- program that encouraged farmers to adopt modern agricultural methods

Create your own planet: Students will create a new planet and designate the name, location, distance, alien life, appearance, and details. Write a short story about an adventure in your planet. Details about the planet should be given within the story. Due 5/10.

Science Notes:

Nebula- cloud of hydrogen and helium gas, dust and other gasses, birthplace of new stars or the remains of old ones.

supernova- When red giant stars have used up their helium they end their life in a massive explosion called a supernova.

galaxies-  A collection of stars, dust and dark matter held together by gravity.

White Dwarf- The last stage in the life of an average sized star.

Red Giant- When the fuel of an average size star starts to run out, it expands into a Red Giant.

Super Giant- When the fuel of a massive star starts to run out, it expands into a Super Giant.

Stars- A bright ball of hydrogen and helium gas producing its own energy through nuclear fusion. The hottest stars are blue/white and the cooler stars are red/yellow.

Black Hole- forms after the death of a very large star, condenses into a small area with a gravitational pull so strong that no light escapes.

meteors- The light that is created when a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere and burns up. A shooting star.

Meteoroids: Small fragment of rock orbiting the sun.

Meteorites: A meteoroid that survives its fall and lands on the Earth’s surface.

asteroids- Small, airless rocky worlds that orbit the sun. Too small to be called planets, many are found in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter.

comets- A ball of dirty, icy rock that circles the Sun on a long elliptical orbit.

Light Year-The astronomical unit to explain how far light can travel in one year. 9.4607 × 1012 km

Speed of Light- The speed at which light travels. 300,000 m / sec

Astronomical Unit-The average distance between the Earth and the Sun. Abbreviated as AU.

1 AU = 150,000,000 km

Geocentric- Earth is the center of the solar system

Heliocentric- The  sun is the center of the solar system

Inner planets- planets closest to the sun share common traits: rocky crust, few to no moons, more dense, no rings, shorter years (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)

Outer planets- planets farthest from the sun share common traits: many moons, ring systems, less dense, longer years, no solid surface, gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)