Social Studies Notes:

Geography Chapter 5

Representative Democracy

*Head- President  *Representatives are elected by majority vote  *Representatives are expected to reflect voter’s wants and needs

Direct Democracy

*ALL citizens make decisions *ALL citizens vote for decisions 


*Rule by ONE  *Dictator has absolute power  *Usually backed by the military

Absolute Monarchy

*Ruled by a King or Queen  *Rule is hereditary *King or Queen has TOTAL control

Constitutional Monarch

*King or Queen is head of state, but NOT head of the government

*King or Queen’s power is limited to a constitution or representative body to make government decisions


*State ruled by a small group of citizens  *Ruled is based on wealth


*Rule by a few  *Based on religion  *Rulers are spiritual leaders  *Laws are religious in nature (“fear of god”)


*No clear ruler  *Individuals can do whatever they want

Communism *The government plans and controls the economy  *A single party holds the power

*Strives to make everyone equal

limited government- government that has legal limits on its power, usually in the form of a constitution unlimited government- government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a single leader or small group 

totalitarian government- government that controls all aspects of society

draft- a law that requires men of certain ages and qualifications to join the military

jury duty- a required service of citizens to act as a member of a jury

scarcity- a problem of having unlimited human wants in a world of limited resources 

free enterprise system- an economic system in which few limits are placed on business activities agricultural industries- businesses that focus on growing crops and raising livestock 

manufacturing industries- businesses that make finished products from raw materials 

developed countries- countries with strong economies and a high quality of life 

developing countries- countries with weak economies and a lower quality of life

Reading Notes:

Elements of Fiction Notes

Genre- the type of literature characterized by a particular form or style

Fiction- a work of literature where the characters and events are invented by the author

Plot- sequence in a story

Exposition- the beginning of a story that may include the characters and the setting

Rising Action- the events that happen while the main character tries to solve the conflict

Climax- the emotional, suspenseful, or intense highpoint of the story 

Falling Action- the events between the climax and the resolution where the loose ends get tied up

Resolution- the outcome of the story

Setting- when and where the story takes place

Conflict- the struggle between opposing forces either external or internal

External conflict- a character struggles against an outside force (man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. society)

Internal conflict- the struggle within a character (man vs. self)

Character- person or animal that takes part in the plot

Protagonist- the main character (usually the hero) of the story

Antagonist- opponent that works against the main character

Dynamic Character- a character that changes in a dramatic way

Static Character- a character that remains the same throughout the story 

Round Character- a character that is presented in a complex way has many layers

Flat Character- a character that is represented by a single character trait

Mood- The feeling or atmosphere that an author creates

Tone- the author’s attitude or feelings about characters, situations, or topics

Theme- the central idea or message about life the author wants to convey to the reader

Symbolism- an object, person, place, or event that represents something else entirely

Irony- a contrast between what is expected and what actually happens

Flashback- when an earlier event is inserted into the story

Foreshadow- when the author gives clues or hints at events that will happen in the future

Point of view- the perspective from which the story is told

1st Person Point of view- the narrator is part of the story, it is told using I, we pronouns

2nd person point of view- the narrator uses words like you to speak directly to the reader

3rd person point of view- the narrator is not part of the story, it is told using he, she pronouns

3rd person limited POV- 3rd person narrator that is knowledgeable about a few or just one character’s thoughts

3rd person omniscient POV- 3rd person narrator that is an all-knowing, all-seeing speaker who understands the thoughts and feelings of any and all of the characters